Fiamme

Fiamme, from the Italian word for flames, are a structure found in welded tuff and Ignimbrite. Fiamme are small, dark lenses of glassy material thought to represent bits of pumice that were softened and compressed into the tuff during this welding episode. A tuff with fiamme is said to have flame structure. A single "flame" is a fiamma, and a fiamme-bearing tuff may be called a piperno (or peperine).

Some fiamme represent fragments of volcanic ejecta, often pumice lapilli that have been flattened by compaction and/or shear. Some fiamme are formed from flattened hot, relatively low viscosity, high porosity fragments of volcanic glass or pumice.

Bibliography



• E. WM. Heinrich (1956): Microscopic Petrografy. Mcgraw-hill book company,inc
• David Shelley (1983): Igneous and metamorphic rocks under the microscope. Campman & Hall editori.
• Vernon, R. H. & Clarke, G. L. (2008): Principles of Metamorphic Petrology. Cambridge University Press
• Shelley D (1992): Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks under the Microscope: Classification, textures, microstructures and mineral preferred orientation
• Cox et al. (1979): The Interpretation of Igneous Rocks, George Allen and Unwin, London.

Photo
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Ignimbrite with fiamme. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Ignimbrite with fiamme. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Ignimbrite with fiamme. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Ignimbrite with fiamme. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Ignimbrite with fiamme. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Ignimbrite with fiamme. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) embedded in brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) embedded in brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
fiamme(sanpietro)(12)

Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
fiamme(sanpietro)(13)

Feldspar crystals (colorless) and brown glassy fiamme. Ignimbrite from S.Pietro island, Sardinia, Italy. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)