Peralkaline Granite

Granite is a medium-tocoarse-grained acid igneous rock with essential quartz (>20%) and feldspar, where alkali feldspar constitutes between 100 and 35% of the feldspars, and minor mafic minerals. Hornblende and biotite are the commonest mafic minerals, however, muscovite is also frequently encountered. Pyroxene, andalusite, corundum, tourmaline, garnet and topaz are also relatively common mafic minerals. Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of granite.

Granites are subdivided on the basis of the relative proportion of alkali feldspar to plagioclase feldspar into monzogranites (65-35% alkali feldspar), syenogranites (90-65% alkali feldspar), and alkali granites (>90% alkali feldspar). Around 70% of granites are monzogranites. Aplites are equigranular granitic rocks with little mafic component occurring in veins or dykes. Granophyres are granitic rocks in which quartz and feldspar has a granophyric intergrowth.

Granites can be subdivided on the basis of their chemistry into peralkaline, metaluminous, and peraluminous on the basis of the ratio Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO). The related terminology is:

• peraluminous: Al2O3 > (Na2O + K2O + CaO) or Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO) > 1.1; Rock will probably have muscovite and may have garnet; will be corundum-normative.
• metaluminous: Al2O3 < (Na2O + K2O + CaO) but Al2O3 > (Na2O + K2O) or Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO) > 1.0; rock may have hornblende
• subaluminous: Al2O3 < (Na2O + K2O + CaO) but Al2O3 = (Na2O + K2O); Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO) < 1.0; rock will probably have hornblende; will have Di in the norm.
• peralkaline: Al2O3 < (Na2O + K2O) or Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO) << 1.0; rock will probably have lot of K-feldspar in the norm, probably a feldspathoid or very little, if any quartz.

But Granites can be subdivided also on the basis of the infered genesis into I-type, S-type, M-type and A-type. Chappell & White classification system was proposed initially to divide granites into I-type granite (or igneous protolith) granite and S-type or sedimentary protolith granite. Both of these types of granite are formed by melting of high grade metamorphic rocks, either other granite or intrusive mafic rocks, or buried sediment, respectively.
M-type or mantle derived granite was proposed later, to cover those granites which were clearly sourced from crystallized mafic magmas, generally sourced from the mantle. These are rare, because it is difficult to turn basalt into granite via fractional crystallisation.
A-type or anorogenic granites are formed above volcanic "hot spot" activity and have peculiar mineralogy and geochemistry. These granites are formed by melting of the lower crust under conditions that are usually extremely dry. The rhyolites of the Yellowstone caldera are examples of volcanic equivalents of A-type granite. H-type or hybrid granites are formed following a mixing of two granitic magmas from different sources, e.g. M-type and S-type.

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Peralkaline granite with fayalite (iron-rich end-member of olivine group). From (Sandatlas). Norway.



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Peralkaline granite with aegirine (grass-green) and arfvedsonite (blue-balck).



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Peralkaline granite with riebeckite (blue-balck). From (Virtual microscope). sle of Ailsa Craig lies in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland.



Bibliography



• Eric A.K.Middlemost (1985): Magmas and Magmatic Rocks. Longman, London
• Ron H. Vernon (2004): A pratical guide to rock microstructure. Cambridge editore
• K.G.Cox, J.D.Bell & R.J Pankhurst (1979): The interpretetion of igneous rocks. George Allen&Unwin editori.
• David Shelley (1983): Igneous and metamorphic rocks under the microscope. Campman & Hall editori


Photo
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Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(2).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(5).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(13).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)
graniti(kone)(16).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)
graniti(kone)(18).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(19).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(21).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(22).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(23).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(24).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(25).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(26).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(27).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(29).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) and orthose crystals (colorless). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(30).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(31).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(32).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(33).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(34).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
graniti(kone)(35).jpg

Aegirine crystals (high interference colors), orthose crystals (I order gray, with perthite unmixing) and quartz (I order gray). Gariboldi (or Kone) Caldera, Ethiopia. XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) crystals. Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (high interference colors) crystals in a fine-grained matrix made of quartz and feldspar (I order gray). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) crystals. Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) crystals and xenotime crystals (high relief). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) crystals. Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (high interference colors) crystals in a fine-grained matrix made of quartz and feldspar (I order gray). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
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Aegirine (grass-green) crystals. Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
namibia(2).jpg

Aegirine (high interference colors) crystals in a fine-grained matrix made of quartz and feldspar (I order gray). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
namibia(3).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) crystals and xenotime crystals (high relief). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
namibia(12).jpg

Aegirine (grass-green) crystals. Brandberg Complex (Namibia). PPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
namibia(13).jpg

Aegirine (high interference colors) crystals in a fine-grained matrix made of quartz and feldspar (I order gray). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
namibia(14).jpg

Aegirine (high interference colors) crystals in a fine-grained matrix made of quartz and feldspar (I order gray). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). XPL image, 2x (Field of view = 7mm)
namibia(27).jpg

Xenotime (high interference colors) crystals in a fine-grained matrix made of quartz and feldspar (I order gray). Brandberg Complex (Namibia). XPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)
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Arfvedsonite crystals (blue). PPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)
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Xenotime (high relief) and arfvedsonite crystals (blue). PPL image, 10x (Field of view = 2mm)